A convenience sample of nineteen patients composing group A, hospitalized for initial placement of permanent cardiac pacemakers, was studied. A programmed instructional test was prepared by the investiga- tors for this population. The question under study was, does programmed instruction for pacemaker patients affect immediate and delayed recall of information? Patients were pre-tested, presented with the programmed instruction package and given a post-test immediately upon completion of the package. They were retested later to evaluate retention level. An IQ test was administered at the same time as the pre-test. Statistical analysis using t-tests indicated significant differences between pre-test scores and post-test I scores and between pre-test scores and post-test II scores at p=0.05. A comparison of post-test I and post-test II showed no significant difference. No difference was found between scores (post test I scores minus pre-test scores) of patients requiring 24 hours to complete programmed instruction and those requiring more than 24 hours. There was also found to be no correlation between retention level and the number of days separating the administration of the two post tests.

Correlation was seen only between IQ and retention. The investigators suggest that the use of programmed instruction is an effective tool for use with pacemaker patients in this study population.

Group B was comprised of a convenience sample of 19 patients hospitalized for pacemaker replacement. The information test and the IQ test were administered. This group of patients did not receive programmed instruction. It was undetermined what prior instruction these patients received, when they received it or if they received any instruction at all. Scores achieved on group B's information test were compared to the retention test given to group A (post-test II). Results indicated no significant difference, although the level of significance found (.09) did approach the p=.05 level previously set by the investigators. No correlation was found between IQ and the information test scores.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Lavaun Sutton

Second Advisor

Lucile Lewis

Third Advisor

Ellsworth Wareham

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Pacemaker, Artificial -- programmed instruction; Pacemaker, Artificial -- education



Page Count

viii; 69

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives