Lie Hong Chen


The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of long-term concentrations of ambient PM on risks of all causes, cardiopulmonary, coronary heart disease (CHD), total cancer, and any mention of nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) mortality.

The health effects of long-term ambient air pollution have been studied with up to 30 years of follow-up in the AHSMOG cohort, a cohort of 6,338 nonsmoking white California adults. Monthly concentrations of ambient air pollutants [particulate matter(PMio), Ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or particulate matter

In the AHSMOG cohort, each increment of 10 |ig/m3 in PMio in two-pollutant models showed increased risks of fatal NMRD with the relative risk (RR) of 1.13 [95% confidence interval (Cl), 1.04-1.22], 1.05 (95% Cl, 0.98-1.13) or 1.06 (95% Cl, 0.99-1.14) controlling for O3, NO2 or SO2, respectively. Also the RR of cancer mortality for each increment of 30 days/year of PM10 in excess of 100 pg/m3 was 1.16 (95% Cl: 1.03-1.31).

In the AHSMOG airport subcohort (n=3,239), the RR for fatal CHD with each 10 pg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 2.00 (95 % Cl: 1.51, 2.64) in the two pollutant model with O3 in females. Corresponding RR’s for a 10 pg/m3 increases in PM10-2.5 and PM10 were 1.62 and 1.45, respectively, in all females. No significant associations were found in males.

A positive association with fatal CHD was found with all three PM fractions in females, but not in males. The risk estimates were more significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants, especially O3. The risk estimates were the highest for PM2.5. Also, increased risks of NMRD and cancer mortality were found with ambient levels of PM10 and gases (O3, or SO2).

LLU Discipline



Epidemiology and Biostatistics


School of Public Health

First Advisor

Synnove M. F. Knutsen

Second Advisor

W. Lawrence Beeson

Third Advisor

Samuel Soret

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Coronary Disease -- epidemiology -- United States; Coronary Disease -- in old age; Cardiovascular Diseases -- mortality; Risk Factor; Air Pollutants -- adverse effects; Air Pollution -- California; Environmental Exposure.



Page Count

xi; 221

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives