Approximately one-fifth of the more than one million abortions per year in the U.S. are performed on women who have already had one previous induced abortion. Repeat abortion is increasing and has been implicated as one of the major problems facing the abortion issue today. In this analytical study of 90 family planning clinic cli ents, some important findings relating to repeat abortion and ineffective contraceptive use were discovered.

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among repeat abortion, self concept, and contraceptive use, enabling those involved to better manage and counsel abortion clients.

The sample was a purposive convenience sample, consisting of the first 30 clients who met the criteria for selection in each of three separate groups; repeat abortion clients, first-time abortion clients, and nonpregnant women effectively using the pill. These 90 clients were then also divided into 2 contraceptive groups: ineffective users (sample size 54) and effective users (sample size 36). Each client who agreed to participate in the study and sign a consent form was given a prepared questionnaire regarding age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and contraceptive use. Each client also completed the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The data was collected individually for the non-pregnant group and was collected during a group rap session for the two abortion groups.

The data v/ere analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis One-way Analysis of Variance for the ordinal variable, self concept, and using the Chi Square test for the nominal variables, contraceptive use and educational level.

Do repeat abortion clients have a lower self concept and educational level, and a less effective use of contraceptives than first-time abortion clients and nonpregnant women effectively using the pill? The researcher concluded from the data that they do not. There was no significant difference in overall self concept or educational level among repeat abortion clients, first-time abortion clients, and non-pregnant women effectively using the pill. There was also no significant difference in contraceptive use, which measured consistency or effectiveness of use, type of contraceptive method most recently used, and number of methods tried, between repeat abortion clients and first-time abortion clients.

Do ineffective contraceptive users have a lower self concept and educational level than effective contraceptive users? The results indicated a significant difference in self concept (p=.025) and educational level (p=. 05) between ineffective contraceptive users and effective users. The researcher concluded that self concept and educational level are factors differentiating ineffective contraceptive users from effective users. Effective contraceptive users appear to have a higher Self concept than ineffective users.

If self concept is a factor in contraceptive effectiveness, than nurses and other health professionals have a responsibility to facilitate change in their client's self concept when it is low.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Frances P. Miller

Second Advisor

L. France Pride

Third Advisor

Peter G. Strutz

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings




Page Count

viii; 119

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives

Included in

Nursing Commons