Few studies have examined the risk factors associated with reduced bone mass in Asians, but none specifically investigated Singaporean Chinese women. The subjects in this study were 16 premenopausal, 8 perimenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women who participated in a larger study which began in 1986. Bone density was measured in 1986 and 1992. Dietary and lifestyle data were collected for this study by personal interview. Association between dietary and lifestyle factors and bone density variables and change in bone density at the end of the 6 year period were assessed by univariate regression analyses.
Postmenopausal women had significantly lower baseline lumbar spine and femoral neck bone density than other groups. Perimenopausal women had significantly greater bone loss compared to other groups.
In premenopausal women BMI was significantly positively associated with femoral neck bone density while exercise and duration of breastfeeding were significantly and directly related to lumbar spine bone density.
In perimenopausal women current calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with change in lumbar spine bone density.
In postmenopausal women age at menopause and duration of breastfeeding were significantly inversely associated with change in femoral neck bone density. A significantly inverse relationship was found between exercise and change in lumbar spine bone density.
Several factors and a small sample size may have led to an inability to detect a relatively large effect or to spurious associations due to chance or due to confounding.
Studies of a larger sample size are needed for establishing more conclusively the relationships between dietary and lifestyle factors and bone density and change in bone density of Singaporean Chinese women.
School of Public Health
Patricia K. Johnson
Kristian D. Lindsted
U. D. Register
Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Bone Density; Diet; Life Style
Loma Linda University Libraries
This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Aimsiri, Ampai Dana, "The Relationship of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors to Bone Mineral Density of Healthy Singaporean Chinese Women" (1994). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 1209.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives