This study compared pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy who have had muscular release surgery. The alveolar and soft tissue changes in the mandible of 128 subjects from a private practice in Northern Italy (74 females and 54 males) were analyzed. In addition, comparisons were made of changes related to age, gender, facial type, and movement of the lower incisor. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed before and after treatment for skeletal, esthetic, and dentoalveolar changes. Photographs were used to assess changes in the soft tissue of the lower anterior region at pretreatment (Tl) versus post-treatment (T2). The null hypothesis is: there are no differences between Tl and T2 in the amount of alveolar bone and keratinized gingiva along the anterior superior aspect of the symphysis in patients who have undergone muscular release surgery, as determined by lateral cephalograms, for the variables of age, gender, facial type, and movement of lower incisor.

The results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the area of B point, ascertained by two measurements; inner area and the distance from posterior superior symphysis (S4) to B point. There was also an increase in the amount of keratinized gingiva. However, no correlation was found between facial type and increase at B point or increase in keratinized gingiva. Likewise, the changes in age and lower incisor angulation from pre-treatment to post-treatment did not significantly impact the amount of changes seen in inner area, S4 to B point, and keratinized gingiva. Overall, the patients in this study benefited mostly from the repositioning of peri-oral muscles that contributed to their pre-treatment malocclusions.

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Graduate Studies

First Advisor

Ivan Dus

Second Advisor

Joseph M. Caruso

Third Advisor

Max Crigger

Fourth Advisor

Michael Fillman

Fifth Advisor

Jay S. Kim

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Oral Surgical Procedures; Alveolar Process; Malocclusion -- surgery



Page Count

vii; 43

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives