Byron Diehl


The purpose of this retrospective research was to evaluate the association of degenerative joint disease (DJD) on the skeletal and dental patterns of affected adolescent individuals. The T1 lateral cephalometric radiographs of 48 subjects were reviewed, consisting of 18 subjects with DJD and 25 subjects without DJD. The age of subjects ranged between 10 - 17 years with a mean age of 13 years. Linear and angular cephalometric measurements were taken to evaluate the skeletal, denture base and dental characteristics of the two groups. Overall, there were 24 variables chosen to represent the cranial base, maxillary jaw position, mandibular jaw position, maxilla to mandible relations, maxillary dentition, mandibular dentition, maxillary to mandibular dental relations, and vertical relations. The Mann-Whitney U-test at the significance level of α = 0.05 was used to detect any statistically significant cephalometric differences between the DJD and non-DJD groups.

Results of this study indicated that the anterior cranial base measurement was statistically longer and the cranial deflection angle was more acute in the DJD group. The maxillary depth and SNA angular measurements were more acute. Facial depth, Ricketts' facial axis, and SNB angles were also more acute in the DJD group. The upper incisor was more retroclined. There was a significant increase in divergence of the occlusal plane to Frankfort horizontal (FHOP) with a clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane. There were significant increases in the mandibular plane, lower face height, and total face height in the DID subjects. The increased angular measurements suggest a clockwise rotation of the mandible and a vertical facial pattern. There was an overall retrusion of the maxilla and mandible.

This study suggests that subjects with DJD have associated altered craniofacial morphology. Clinicians should be aware of these possibilities, in particular for patients who are growing children or adolescents, especially when the patient presents with maxillary and mandibular retrognathic jaw relationships or vertical facial pattern.

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Graduate Studies

First Advisor

Joseph M. Caruso

Second Advisor

Samuel A. Demirdji

Third Advisor

Jay S. Kim

Fourth Advisor

Marie Mansour

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Joint Disease; Temporomandibular Joint Disorders; Adolescent; Skull Base -- abnormalities; Face -- abnormalities



Page Count

x; 46

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives