This retrospective study evaluated the 26 cephalometric measurements which comprise 13 ratios that were purposed by Robert M. Ricketts to be Divine Proportions. The hypothesis that was tested in this study was one that stated that these 13 ratios were not only Divine Proportions, but were constant in all facial types, in both genders and in all stages of growth. In an effort to test this hypothesis, cephalographs were chosen at random from the files of Dr. Ruel Bench, which are currently housed in the Ricketts Research Library at Loma Linda University. Each film tracing was reviewed for accuracy and any modifications deemed necessary were made by the author. The text describes the method used to plot the various landmarks and indicates which measurements were used in testing the hypothesis that these ratios complied with the Divine Proportion. The findings were similar to Rickett's earlier study in that certain ratios showed a similarity to Phi (1.618), the Divine Proportion. Furthermore, some ratios remained constant throughout growth, regardless of gender or facial type. It was also found that certain measurements required a normal occlusion, or a proportional skeletal pattern, to fall within the accepted range of parameters for the Divine Proportion. It may be concluded that there is a tendency for a naturally occurring proportionality of the majority of the parameter pairs tested, at least amongst the mesofacial face type group. This information can be used in (1) evaluation for a possible deficiency or excessiveness of components of certain parameter pairs of craniofacial structures, and in (2) extrapolating for the Divine Proportion of such deficient and/or excessive parameter pair structures when planning for orthodontic, orthopedic or cosmetic correction.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

R. David Rynearson

Second Advisor

Gary K. Kevorkian

Third Advisor

Victor C. West

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Face; Maxillofacial Development; Facial Expression; Physiognomy



Page Count

2 vi; 34

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives