The dentition and craniofacial complex of the Papago Indian was studied and compared to other groups. Casts of plaster and lateral cephalometric roentgenograms were obtained from 31 Papago Indians who were from southwestern Arizona and were attending high school at the Stewart Indian Boarding School, Carson City, Nevada. The individuals were between the ages of 13 and 20 years and had normal jaw relationships with no contiguous missing teeth. Data was obtained for the following variables from an oral examination, dental casts and tracings of the roentgenograms:

  1. Degree of shovel shape of the maxillary centrals.
  2. Frequency of cusp of Carabelli.
  3. Mesiodistal crown widths of the Maxillary central and lateral incisors.
  4. Occurrence of mandibular tori.
  5. Maxillary second premolar to first molar buccolingual diameter ratio.
  6. Palatal height and maxillary and mandifular arch width and length.
  7. The facial plane angle.
  8. The angle of convexity.
  9. The A-B plane angle.
  10. Mandibular plane angle.
  11. Y axis.
  12. Cant of the occlusal plane.
  13. Inter-incisal angle.
  14. Mandibular incisor to occlusal plane.
  15. Mandibular incisor to the mandibular plane.
  16. Maxillary incisor to point B.
  17. S-Na-A.
  18. S-Na-B.
  19. A-Na-B.
  20. S-N to Go-Gn.
  21. Maxillary central to S-Na.
  22. Maxillary central to N-P.

Comparisons were made with various groups to see to what degree the Papago conforms to the master pattern of the Mongoloid dentition as proposed by Moorrees (1957).

A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed comparing the Papago, Pima, Apache, Mayo and Chamula Indians. This was done to determine the degree of discrimination possible between closely related groups of people.

The Papago in this sample was found to have the following characteristics which are in conformance with the proposed master pattern:

  1. A high incidence of shovel shaped incisors.
  2. A low incidence of cusp of Carabelli.
  3. A relatively small width difference between the maxillary lateral and central incisors.

Not in conformance with the proposed master pattern was the finding of a low frequency of torus mandibularis.

On the basis of the discriminant analysis it is concluded that:

  1. The Papago, Pima and Apache of this sample cannot be clearly distinguished from one another on the basis of the variables and tests utilized.

  2. The Mayo and Chamula of the sample used are clearly distinguished from each other and from the other tribes with the variables and tests utilized.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Thomas J. Zwemer

Second Advisor

Gayle H. Nelson

Third Advisor

Howard W. Conley

Fourth Advisor

P. William Dysinger

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Dentition; Anthropometry; Indians, North American -- Nevada.



Page Count

viii; 47

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

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This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


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