A sample of thirty first bicuspid extraction patients, ages 9 through adult, were evaluated for maxillary molar anchorage loss during cuspid retraction. The Nance Holding Arch and Kloehn cervical headgear were compared as anchorage devices. A control group received no anchorage mechanics during cuspid retraction. All cuspids were retracted with Hilger's loop retractors.

Anchorage loss was measured cephalometrically by comparing the difference in the 6 to PTV measurement on the initial and post cuspid retraction lateral head films.

Anchorage loss, as the dependent variable, was compared to the study groups, Angle class, facial type, treatment length, palatal angle and distance of cuspid retraction as independent variables.

Eighteen patients were treated with the Nance Holding Arch, six with Kloehn cervical headgear and six with no anchorage mechanics during cuspid retraction. Results show no significant difference in mean anchorage loss in the three groups (Nance = 1.288 mm loss; Headgear = 0.833 mm loss; Control = 1.583 mm loss).

Initial molar Angle classification had no significant effect on maxillary molar anchorage. This study showed the least anchorage loss in the Class II end-on sample and the greatest loss in the Class I sample.

Dolichofacial patients demonstrated greater anchorage loss than Brachyfacial patients but the difference was not significant. (1.76 mm and 1.26 mm respectively.)

Although not significant statistically, steeper, high vaulted palates tend to provide greater molar anchorage when the Nance Holding Arch is used.

No correlation was demonstrated between anchorage loss and length of treatment (T1 radiograph to cuspids retracted radiograph).

The study showed that the upper molar position can be reliably traced and evaluated for anchorage loss.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

J. Milford Anholm

Second Advisor

Alden B. Chase

Third Advisor

Lawrence McEwen

Fourth Advisor

Willis L. Schlenker

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Molar; Orthodontic Appliances; Dental Arch; Orthodontics, Corrective



Page Count

vi; 50

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives