The objective of this thesis is to provide for the cardiologist polarcardiograms and additional diagnostic criteria which will enable him to diagnose heart disease more easily. Other contributions are those of: (a) providing a system of data acquisition and (b) analyzing Dr. Gordon Dower’s criteria for myocardial infarction using the programs provided in this thesis.

The problem inherent in the reading of a polarcardiogram is the identification of the "loop" patterns with the associated heart disease. This can be accomplished by reading and interpreting both vectorcardiograms and electrocardiograms as well as angiograms, then relating the interpretation to the polarcardiogram patterns. The problem of computer programming and transfer of data from the Dower cart to the MIIS system to the Tektronix terminal, then plotting the "loops" requires the following skills in completion of the task: expertise in computer operation, knowledge and understanding of cardiac electrical activity and biomath computation. An additional problem encountered in the immediate completion of the objectives was due to the fact that the Roche system, which converts a signal from an analog wave to a digital form, was not yet installed at the beginning of the project. The Roche system is a computerized system for EKG interpretation and analysis. However, it was possible to substitute the EMR 6130 Fortran system and the PDP 12, which although less efficient, accomplishes the same results as the Roche system to obtained digitized data.

The three processes beginning with the EMR 6130 Fortran, converting to the PDP 12 and EMR 6130 are as follows:

1. Frank-lead electrocardiogram data were collected on the Dower cart, processed on the EMR 6130, then plotted on the Calcomp plotter.

2. Frank-lead electrocardiogram data were collected on the Dower cart, transferred to the EMR 6130, stored in the MIIS operating system. processed in the Tektronix terminal and then plotted on the Tektronix plotter.

3. Frank-lead electrocardiogram data were collected on the Dower cart, digitized by the PDP 12, transferred to the EMR 6130 for pattern recognition, stored in the MIIS operating system, processed in the Tektronix terminal, and then plotted on the Tektronix plotter.

Procedures followed to complete this study were:

1. Collect the Frank-lead electrocardiogram data on the patients.

2. Convert the analog wave pattern to digitized numerical data.

3. Do the necessary pattern recognition to produce a median wave.

4. Store the median wave as numerical data.

5. Run the vectorcardiogram program to plot the vectorcardiograms.

6. Run the 12-lead synthesis program which synthesizes the 12 scalar leads from the 3 Frank leads.

7. Run the polarcardiogram program to produce the polar patterns on an Aitoff projection.

8. Run the transverse magnitude vs. beta wave and sagittal magnitude vs. gamma wave programs.

9. Diagnose disease by use of the angiogram used as the gold standard.

10. Relate each disease to the transverse magnitude vs. beta wave sagittal magnitude vs. gamma wave.

11. Correlate the results of the magnitude vs. beta and gamma waves with Dr. Dower’s criteria for myocardial infarction.


The following myocardial infarctions have been identified by the Polarcardiographic criteria of the transverse magnitude vs. beta wave and sagittal magnitude vs. gamma wave: (Dr. Dower's Criteria)

(a) Anterior myocardial infarction:

  1. TMQRS returns to zero after an initial deflection.
  2. BetaQRS has an upward slope before TMQRS reaches its maximum.
  3. BetaQRS is entirely positive.

(b) Inferior myocardial infarction:

  1. SMQRS returns to zero after an initial deflection.
  2. GammaQRS has a downward slope before SMQRS reaches its maximum.


Based on the results of this project on 20 patients it is possible to use the criteria for myocardial infarction from the magnitude vs. angle waves for the following:

  1. Diagnosis of Anterior myocardial infarction.
  2. Diagnosis of Inferior myocardial infarction.


Graduate School

First Advisor

Ivan R. Neilsen

Second Advisor

Duane Zimmerman

Third Advisor

Roy Jutzy

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Vectorcardiography; Heart Diseases -- diagnosis; Computers



Page Count

ill; 118

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives