Background: The frequent consumption of nuts is inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Nuts are known to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, E-selectin and interleukin-6 have been proposed to be newer risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the influence of nuts such as almonds on markers of inflammation and hemostasis that influence cardiovascular disease risk is not currently known.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of almond consumption on markers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in healthy adults.

Design: This was a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2-week run-in period on a typical American diet (34% energy from fat), subjects were randomized to the Step I diet, low almond diet and high almond diet (0%, 10% or 20% isoenergetic replacement of Step I diet with almonds respectively), for four weeks each. Serum E-selectin, IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen, tPA ag and lipoprotein(a) were analyzed at the end of each dietary period.

Results: E-selectin was significantly lower on the almond diets and decreased as the percentage of energy from almonds increased (P-trend < 0.0001). CRP was statistically significantly lower on the low (P = 0.04) and high (P = 0.03) almond diets in comparison to the Step I diet. tPA was significantly lower on the Step I (P = 0.01) and high almond (P = 0.004) diets compared with the low almond diet. Fibrinogen, IL-6 and lipoprotein(a) were not significantly different between the three diets

Conclusions: Consumption of almonds was able to lower levels of inflammatory markers, E-selectin and CRP, which may be an indication of reduction in the inflammatory process and thus impact CVD. However, other hemostatic and inflammatory factors studied did not appear to be significantly influenced by the diets enriched with almonds.




Graduate School

First Advisor

Sujatha Rajaram

Second Advisor

Brian Bull

Third Advisor

Joan Sabaté

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Fatty Acids, Monosaturated; Fatty Acids; Dietary Fats.



Page Count

ix; 79

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives