Microcirculation regulated by the sympathetic system and vascular endothelium plays a significant role in the homeostasis of temperature and wound healing. Damage to the autonomic nervous system and endothelial system resulting from aging and diabetes decreases the potential of wound healing. Insulin resistance and impaired wound healing associated with type 2 diabetes can lead to diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). Factors such as the increased insulin resistance, impaired wound healing and DFU can increase the risk of amputation in type 2 diabetics (T2D). In research, passive vibration (PV) was effective in increasing skin blood flow (SBF) in healthy individuals as well as in good to fair glycemic control T2D. There has been no study performed to examine the effect of PV on (SBF), skin temperature (ST) and blood pressure (BP) in good glycemic control (GG) control and poor glycemic (PG) control T2D. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PV on SBF without adversely affecting the ST and BP in GG control and PG control T2D. This was done by assessing SBF using a MOOR full-field laser perfusion imager (MOOR FLPI) after the application of PV. Seventeen good glycemic control and fifteen poor glycemic control T2D participated in this study. The SBF, ST and BP were measured at the baseline. Then, the subjects received PV to their calf area and foot area on another side for about ten minutes. The second reading was measured immediately after the PV. The third measurement was taken after a ten minutes rest post the vibration application. Results from this study showed that PV significantly increased SBF in the calf area from baseline to immediately after vibration and baseline to 10 minutes post rest without adversely affecting the ST and BP in both GG control and PG control T2D. Also, the percent change of SBF in the foot area was higher in the GG control (91.3%) than in PG control T2D (32.6%). Results from this study suggest that PV can be a safe and alternative method in increasing SBF without increasing the risk of burns in GG control and PG control T2D.

LLU Discipline

Physical Therapy


Physical Therapy


School of Allied Health Professions

First Advisor

Lohman, Everett B.

Second Advisor

Berk, Lee S.

Third Advisor

Canizales, Rafael

Fourth Advisor

Daher, Noha S.

Fifth Advisor

Schwab, Ernie

Degree Name

Doctor of Science (DSc)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded

January 2013

Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Diabetes Milletus, Type 2; Regional blood flow; Microcirculation - physiology;

Subject - Local

Type 2 Diabetes; Skin blood flow; Passive vibration; Microcirculation



Page Count

100 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives