The purpose of this study was to find out whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C.O.P.D.) learn more from auditory or from visual teaching. Of the 30 patients in the sample, 10 used a programmed instruction booklet, 10 used a taped recording of the same programmed material and 10 were in a control group which received no specific teaching.

A pre-test was given to each of the patients who met the criteria for the study. One researcher gave the pre-test through an oral interview with the patient. After the pre-test, the patient received the teaching device assigned to him by random selection. Forty-eight hours after he had had the teaching device a second researcher gave a post-test, also by interview. The difference in the score from the pre-test to the post-test was used to measure learning. A second post-test was given to fifteen of the patients two weeks after the first post-test. This score was measured against the previous scores to ascertain retention of learning.

The hypothesis accepted for the study was that patients with C.O.P.D. instructed with auditory teaching techniques learn more than similar patients taught with visual teaching techniques. Analysis of the data showed support of this hypothesis in that the auditory group improved a mean of 1.8 points, the visual group improved a mean 1.0 points and the control group a mean 0.7 points.

A similar sub-hypothesis related to retention of learning was not supported by this study because the control group scored highest on mean improvement. The effect of chronic hypoxia and motivation of the patient's learning was discussed and tested. These results were for the main, statistically insignificant.

Included in the findings were the following: Patients who admitted changes in reading habits consistently scored less in all groups, (P < .10), Patients that lived at one address longer learned less in all groups (P < .05 in visual and auditory groups), formal education a person had the greater the increase in post-test The more scores.

The literature was reviewed in terms of C.O.P.D. and the role of education in the patient's management, teaching methods commonly used in patient education, and specific problems related to learning in the C.O.P.D. patient (hypoxia, motivation, and vision).

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Lucile Lewis

Second Advisor

Gordon W. Thompson

Third Advisor

Jane A. Mundin

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Lung Diseases; Obstructive -- nursing Emphysema; Bronchitis



Page Count

vii; 68

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives