The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of particular sounds upon certain indices of cardio-pulmonary function and the degree and pattern of changes which occurred in the indices. The specific physiological parameters chosen to be monitored were heart rate, respiratory rate, mean tidal volume, instantaneous minute volume, and oxygen consumption. The hypothesis was that particular sounds will cause changes in certain indices of cardio-pulmonary functions. This was a controlled experiment, in which nine healthy males and nine healthy females, of a denominational, medically oriented University listened to a specially constructed tape of background music interspersed with an automobile accident, screaming, glass breaking, a siren, a bedpan dropping, jazz playing, an automobile horn and loud music. An EKG tracing and a Sandborn Metabulator tracing were made for each subject during the thirty-two minute testing period. A pilot study was done. T-tests were used to determine if changes of the variables were significant. T-tests indicated that, at the 0.05 level of significance, the dropping bedpan caused the only significant increases in heart rate of both males and females. The breaking glass caused a significant increase in the heart rate of the females only. Means and standard deviations of the variables of the male group and the female group showed that the heart rate of the males tended to increase during the period of breaking glass and decrease during the car crash. There was a slight downward trend in the respiratory rate for the males. Large individual differences were reflected in the standard deviations and substantiated by the raw data. The sound periods during which these large individual changes occurred and the parameters involved could have a clinical significance. There were no significant changes in the parameters from the control period of silence one in comparison to the silence two period which indicates there were no cumulative effects caused by the sequence of sounds. As a result of the findings of this study, the hypothesis was accepted. Particular sounds cause changes in certain indices of cardio-pulmonary functions.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Matilda Anabelle Mills

Second Advisor

R. Maureen Maxwell

Third Advisor

Raymond B. Crawford

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Acoustic Stimulation -- psychology; Heart Function Tests



Page Count

x; 88

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives