Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) include physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment, domestic violence, household mental illness, household substance abuse and incarceration of parents. ACEs may have negative impacts on children, including brain development and health outcomes. Parents are pivotal figures in children’s lives that contribute significantly to their health, and cognitive development, and may be a critical protective factor, contributing to children’s resiliency and healthy growth. This study focused on the intellectual development of 5-11 year-old children whom may have been exposed to ACEs in their homes. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine parental involvement as a mediator of the relationship between children’s ACEs and their Intelligence Quotient (IQ). We hypothesized that parental involvement would significantly mediate the association between children’s ACE scores and their IQ, such that as ACE scores increased, children’s IQ decreased via the effect of lack of parental involvement. Children’s ACE scores were determined via parent-report questionnaires. Children’s intelligence were measured via Kauffman Brief Intelligence Test, which is a standardized test that measures verbal (crystallized) intelligence and non-verbal (fluid) intelligence. Parental involvement was measured via a subscale from the Parenting Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ) as a means of measuring the amount of time parents engaged in various activities with their children. Results indicted [sic] that that [sic] parental involvement did not significantly mediate the relationship between children’s ACE scores and their IQ. However, we determined a significant association between children’s ACE scores and parental involvement. Our post-hoc analyses tested parental involvement as a mediator of the relationship between child ACE scores and verbal, as well non-verbal, intelligence. Results indicted [sic] that parental involvement did not significantly mediate the relationship between either children’s ACE scores and their verbal intelligence or their non-verbal intelligence. Lastly, we considered the possibility that parental involvement may moderate the relationship between child’s ACE scores and their IQ. We examined whether the amount of parental involvement may impact the relationship between children’s ACE scores and their intelligence. Results indicated that low, medium, or high levels of parental involvement did not significantly effect the relationship between children’s ACE scores and their IQ. Limitations and implications for future studies within this field were discussed.
School of Behavioral Health
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Subject - Local
Adverse childhood experiences; Cognitive ability; Children; PARENTAL influences
xi, 36 p.
Loma Linda University Libraries
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Mostofi, Shirin, "Parental Involvement as a Mediator of ACE Scores and Intelligence Among Children" (2020). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 1600.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives