This study was designed to determine whether upper central incisor inclination approximated the facial axis, long-term, posttreatment, regardless of the initial malocclusion or immediate posttreatment incisor inclination. Lateral head films at pretreatment, immediate posttreatment and long-term posttreatment were traced and evaluated. The sample was divided into facial type. Angle classification and treatment type (extraction vs. non-extraction). Statistical analyses included means, standard deviations, confidence intervals, population t tests and chi-square tabulations.
The results revealed that the upper central incisor did not approximate the facial axis after a minimum of 7 years posttreatment. This failed to support the use of the facial axis angle as a placement guide for long-term upper incisor stability. This does not preclude that placing the upper incisor parallel to the facial axis has no functional merit.
It was concluded, however, that treatment method had greater influence than did facial type. Angle classification or initial upper incisor position in determining the long-term, posttreatment stability of the upper central incisor. In extraction cases, the upper incisor became more retrusive long-term posttreatment, regardless of initial malocclusion or facial type, while in non-extraction cases, the upper incisor became more protrusive.
Joseph M. Caruso
James R. Farrage
Michael J. Fillman
Roland D. Neufeld
Master of Science (MS)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Incisor -- physiopathology; Malocclusion -- physiopathology; Orthodontics, Corrective; Data Interpretation, Statistical
2 vi; 49
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This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Sparks, David Lawrence, "Long-Term Posttreatment Upper Incisor Inclination : Relative to Facial Axis Angulation as a Measure for Incisor Placement" (1994). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 1613.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives