Namcy Moll


The problem with which this study was concerned was the development of criteria that could be used to determine when urinary catheter changes were necessary. By determining when encrustation occurred, it was felt that some complications could be eliminated by changing catheters before obstruction occurred due to encrustation.

It was the purpose of this study to: 1) explore some indications for catheter change, 2) determine if encrustation of urinary catheters necessitates catheter change, and 3) estimate potential criteria for a routine time for catheter changes.

Forty-five catheters were examined after their removal from patients. Flow rates were determined on 33 of the catheters, and all fell within the normal range except two. Visual inspection of all catheters revealed encrustation of the balloon and lumen of one catheter and encrustation of the lumina of two catheters. The other catheter had a slow flow rate but no encrustation was found during the visual inspection.

The four catheters which had encrustations had drained bacteriuric urine for 11, 6, 5, and 5 days. The causative organisms were Proteus mirabilis and enterococci, Candida albicans, candida (not albicans), and candida (not albicans) respectively. In considering the percentage of encrusted catheters by the duration of bacteriuria, no firm conclusion could be formulated concerning the relationship of foreign material to the duration of bacteriuria. It was found that encrustation was not present if bacteriuria was present for a short time. As encrustation was considered in its relationship to causative organisms, a higher proportion of catheters from patients bacteriuric due to candida did have encrustation.

Twenty-six catheters were examined which had not drained bacteriuric urine. None of these catheters were found to have encrustations. It was concluded that for this portion of the sample gross encrustation had not occurred.

A study using a larger sample needs to be conducted to determine if these data were statistically significant. Further studies need to be conducted in determining the relationship of bacteriuria to intra-catheter encrustation and in formulating criteria for determining when or if catheter changes are necessary.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

L. Lucile Lewis

Second Advisor

Harvey A. Elder

Third Advisor

Grace Emori

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Bacteriuria; Catheters; Indwelling



Page Count

vi; 37;2

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives