The effect of nine gram positive and grain negative cocci and bacilli, which are indigenous to the oral cavity, on the in vitro growth of Bacteroides gingivalis was examined in this study. A pure culture of B. gingivalis is was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. The nine oral test organisms were Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacteriurn hofmanii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Escherichia coli. The effect on the growth of B. gingivalis of the nine test organisms was evaluated on a solid medium by use of a satellite phenomenon study and in a liquid medium by use of an optical density study. Incubation was conducted under aerobic conditions for seven days at 30°C.

The sterile filtrates of trypticase soy broth which was used as the culture medium during incubation and growth of the nine provider organisms were evaluated for the presence of menadione by use of high pressure liquid chromatography.

The results of the satellite phenomenon study indicate that B. gingivalis (ATCC #33277) requires menadione (vit K) for in vitro growth. Of the nine organisms tested, the gram positive cocci were more efficient "provider" organisms than the gram positive and gram negative bacilli.

The results of the optical density study also indicate that B. gingivalis (ATCC #33277) requires menadione for in vitro growth. Of the nine provider organisms tested, only S. mutans demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the growth of B. gingivalis as compared to the positive control.

The high pressure liquid chromatography analysis indicates that of the nine provider organisms tested, only S. mutans produced a substance into its growth environment which was similar in molecular structure and polarity to menadione. B. gingivalis is is an important pathogen in oral-facial infections. It requires menadione for growth. The pathogenicity of B. gingivalis appears to be the result of a synergistic mixed infection which contains facultative gram positive cocci, especially S. mutans, which synthesize menadione or a similar substance, thus making it available at the site of infection as a needed growth requirement.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

James D. Kettering

Second Advisor

Benjamin H.S. Lau

Third Advisor

Mahmoud Torabinejad

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Bacteroides -- growth & development; Vitamin K



Page Count

v; 121

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


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Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives