The study was designed to assess the level of anxiety experienced by chronic schizophrenic patients when two different methods of leadership were used in group therapy. A search of literature revealed suggestions for modification of leadership approach due to the tenuous anxiety tolerance of chronic schizophrenics but no studies were found directly related to the amount of anxiety resulting from different leadership approaches.

A structured group in which the leader maintained a directive role was compared with a nonstructured group in which the leader maintained a nondirective role in the group process. The randomized sample included five male and five female patients in each group. The groups met each weekday evening for a period of two weeks.

The Spielberger Self-Evaluation Questionnaire was used for the subjective measurement of anxiety. Physiological arousal was measured by blood pressure and pulse recordings. A computer was used for an analysis of covariance on both psychological and physiological data.

The findings generally supported the alternate hypothesis that there would be significantly less anxiety and/or arousal experienced by chronic schizophrenic patients in a nonstructured group as compared with a structured group. Analysis of the psychological data and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed significantly higher scores for the structured group. Analysis of pulse revealed no significance.

The ”before-group" recordings of blood pressure were analyzed to see if there was a significant difference in arousal in anticipation of the group experience. The structured group was found to have a significantly higher level of arousal when measured by blood pressure. Both groups had higher blood pressure means in anticipation of the group experience.

Sex was found to be a significant factor in the amount of anxiety experienced by these chronic schizophrenic patients, with the males having higher scores than the females.

An analysis of interaction, to determine whether or not the treatment affected males and females in each group differently, showed significance but no consistent pattern.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

Rachel M. Lee

Second Advisor

Ina Y. Longway

Third Advisor

Norma Norriss

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings




Page Count


Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives