E-cigarettes have increased in popularity and production over the years. Although many individuals believe that e-cigarettes are safe for use, there is increasing evidence that e-cigarette use is associated with negative health consequences. Mindfulness is negatively associated with substance use including traditional cigarette smoking. Although there is limited research on the relationship between mindfulness and e-cigarette use, research on the relationship between mindfulness and traditional cigarette smoking may serve as a guide for e-cigarette use research. The objective of the present study is to test whether mindfulness is a protective factor against e-cigarette use through its effect on variables that are related to conventional cigarette smoking, such as negative affect, difficulties with emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and perceived stress. Eight hundred sixty-seven participants were recruited via online forums and local businesses in Southern California (Mage = 29.2, SD = 10.9; 62.9% male). Multiple mediation analyses revealed that mindfulness was not significantly associated with either lifetime or current e-cigarette use and that negative affect, difficulties with emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and perceived stress did not mediate this relationship. However, mindfulness was significantly associated with all of the proposed mediators. Findings suggest that e-cigarette users and traditional cigarette smokers may be using for different reasons. Given that e-cigarette use is on the rise, particularly among middle and high school aged youth, future research should continue to prioritize prevention efforts by examining potential predictors of use.

LLU Discipline

Clinical Psychology




School of Behavioral Health

First Advisor

Holly E. R. Morrell

Second Advisor

Cameron Neece

Third Advisor

Gary Tedeschi

Fourth Advisor

David Vermeersch

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems; Vaping; Protective Factors; Mindfulness



Page Count

xiii; 91 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives