Novel, effective, and accessible therapeutic interventions for treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms are in demand given the significant physical and psychosocial impairment associated with the disorder. Although PTSD is largely treated using various forms of cognitive behavioral therapy, treatment-resistance, or non-response, rates continue to remain high. Research has shown that talk-therapies can often trigger the limbic system, keeping it in a continual state of fight or flight. Consequently, many trauma survivors are motivated to consider alternative treatments for PTSD, such as artifact corrected EEG neurofeedback training, shifting the primary focus of the intervention away from the emotional part of the brain. Artifact corrected EEG neurofeedback therapy addresses two primary facets identified through the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test – 2 (IVA-2). The IVA-2 assesses whether or not, and to what degree, a person’s visual and auditory processing systems have the capacity to interpret information from the environment. Secondly, when assessment results are coupled with neurofeedback, individuals learn to train their brain for better self-regulation. Impaired visual and auditory processing may prevent information from being accurately interpreted, and therefore, increases the likelihood of maintaining a person’s perceptual distortions, in perpetuity. This study explored the relationship between trauma related symptoms (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) and visual and auditory functioning by analyzing archival data, based on a population of veterans and non-military adults with self-reported PTSD. The results of this study suggest that EEG neurofeedback therapy is clinically effective for improving visual and auditory attentional functioning in both military and non-military persons, in the context of trauma. Improved attentional functioning may boost organizational skills, decision making, frustration tolerance, and comprehension. This is crucial information because there continues to be high levels of treatment non-response and drop-out rates among veterans with PTSD who are participating in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based programs. Two-thirds of veterans who complete CBT programs remain in the clinical range for PTSD, with notable attention deficits. Treatment-outcome research, such as this study, is vital to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for persons diagnosed with PTSD, particularly within specific populations that have high non-response rates, such as veterans.

LLU Discipline

Clinical Psychology




School of Behavioral Health

First Advisor

Connie McReynolds

Second Advisor

Grace Lee

Third Advisor

Susanne Montgomery

Fourth Advisor

David Vermeersch

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Subject - Local

Veterans; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Neurofeedback; Electroencephalography



Page Count

xi, 41 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives