The purpose of this study was to investigate how the interplay of risk and protective factors within the home, school, and individual domains may influence problem behaviors in youth ages 12 to 19 years. Moreover, this research was one of the most recent studies in Trinidad and Tobago that focused primarily on school risk and protective factors. It aimed to examine how school, family, and individual characteristics may shape adolescents’ substance-using, violent, and antisocial behaviors. This relationship was analyzed using the measures of the Community that Cares or CTC instrument. Notably, within relevant literature, it was revealed that teenage behavior problems might predict the likelihood of adverse outcomes. Therefore, this study builds on previous research to provide a deeper understanding of the complexities of youth-at-risk behaviors that may serve as trajectories towards maladjustment problems. Moreover, the findings contribute to existing knowledge of the unique features of the Caribbean region as it relates to the issue of school misconduct, which is currently lacking. Thus, the research findings serve to better inform appropriate interventions for policy and decision-makers and aid in the proper design and implementation of youth-based initiatives to support and promote prosocial approaches within the school and broader education settings.

LLU Discipline

Family Studies


Counseling and Family Sciences


School of Behavioral Health

First Advisor

Curtis A. Fox

Second Advisor

Winetta A. Oloo

Third Advisor

Colwick M. Wilson

Fourth Advisor

Jacqueline M. Williams-Reade

Fifth Advisor

Zephon D. Lister

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Protective Factors; Trinidad and Tobago; Risk-Taking--in adolescence.



Page Count

xii, 194 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives