Physician burnout is a work-related syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment. It is present in epidemic proportions and is estimated to occur in over 50% of practicing physicians and in up to 89% of resident physicians. While there have been numerous burnout studies and many prevention or intervention programs introduced, the rates of utilization in resident physicians remain low and the rate of burnout continues to increase. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to generate an understanding of burnout prevention attribute preferences within a resident physician population using Nominal Group Technique (NGT). The results will be used to design a Conjoint Based Analysis study to inform the development of resident burnout prevention programs. To inform this study an initial focus group study helped to identify attributes for inclusion in the conjoint analysis. This study identified the need to address multiple organizational factors with complex interventions that target systemic and program level factors rather than focusing only on individual interventions. These results may help by aligning burnout interventions with resident preferences which could improve the efficacy of burnout prevention programs, enabling residents to fully benefit from current and future models of burnout prevention. A second theme that developed because of an unexpected focus group finding is the need to generate an understanding of the current state of religion and spirituality (R/S) in healthcare. Residents rated spiritual care and nurturing attribute as 21st out of 23, showing low priority for this intervention, yet research shows that consideration of the whole person, including R/S improves outcomes, health, and wellbeing. We notice empirically, though, that many times healthcare providers, their organizations, medical training institutes, and public health entities, fail to include R/S in their consideration of health and well-being issues. Therefore, the purpose of the secondary study is to generate an understanding of the current state of R/S in healthcare, with its related health and well-being issues, to make recommendations for changes in policies and practices that will help to enhance health and wellbeing of individuals, communities, and populations.

LLU Discipline



School of Religion

First Advisor

Oleksandr Dubov

Second Advisor

Brian Distelberg

Third Advisor

Gerald Winslow

Degree Name

Doctor of Science (DSc)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Burnout, Professional; Physicians; Spirituality; Focus Groups



Page Count

xi, 93 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives