Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease that causes a cascade of both mechanical and molecular injury to the central nervous system. It is a debilitating disease that has no well-established treatments, thus leaving an important area to study the pathophysiology of the disease so that new clinically translatable treatments can be found. In the development of translational treatments in experimental ICH, several challenges exist including the designing of studies, method to deliver drugs, proper dosages, and development of models. In our exploration to establish new therapies for ICH, we studied several methods and models that may help to develop treatments. We studied the treatment efficacy of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Adropin, and inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) in protecting against blood-brain barrier injury and improving hematoma resolution following ICH. Our work showed that intranasal administration of IGF-1 and Adropin was able to reduce brain edema, improve neurological behavior, and reduce permeability of the BBB after ICH. We also found that inhibition of PDGFR-β was able to reduce stress fiber formation and reduce BBB permeability following ICH. Additionally, we have also reviewed and discussed the current literature on the pathophysiology, potential intervention regions, and future directions concerning ICH.

LLU Discipline





School of Medicine

First Advisor

John H. Zhang

Second Advisor

Richard Hartman

Third Advisor

Lei Huang

Fourth Advisor

Kerby Oberg

Fifth Advisor

Jiping Tang

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Cerebral Hemorrhage; Blood-Brain Barrier; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor



Page Count

xv, 130 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives

Included in

Physiology Commons