This study aimed to evaluate the force (F) and torque (Tq) exerted on a rotated canine and molar tooth by two different aligner systems. An ArchForm loop clear aligner (AFL) was compared to a traditional clear aligner (T) with the force (F) and torque (Tq) compared. A reduction in F and Tq with AFL aligners could possibly decrease the incidence of Orthodontic Root Resorption (ORR), while also creating more effective forces for tooth movement.

Materials and Methods

Two types of T aligners varying by material thickness were compared to two types of AFL aligners varying by loop width. All aligners were designed by ArchForm Design Software. A maxillary canine and molar were tested separately with both F and Tq in the X, Y and Z axis evaluated. The test tooth was cut out of a study model and mounted onto a load cell. The aligners were individually placed over the study model, the test tooth was rotated 2 degrees mesial-buccally (MB) and the force values were recorded.


To differentiate test results based on the X, Y and Z vectors of force and torque, ANOVA tests were performed. To further compare each aligner type to each other a Games-Howell Post-Hoc test was run. Statistically significant differences in F and Tq were seen among aligner groups for each tooth type and axis.


1) There was statistically significant difference in F and Tq among aligner type for each tooth type and axis. 2) AFL aligners showed a statistically significant reduction in F and Tq when compared to .040 T aligners as well as in the large majority of .030 T aligners 3) The difference in the width of the loop within the AFL aligners had a statistically significant effects on the large majority of the F and Tq values. 4) The difference in the material thickness within the T aligners had statistically significant effects on all of the F and Tq values for molar teeth. 5) Further studies are needed to truly see the clinical significance and benefits of this novel aligner design

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


School of Dentistry

First Advisor

V. Leroy Leggitt

Second Advisor

Mohammed Toufic Jeiroudi

Third Advisor

Kitichai Rungcharassaeng

Degree Name

Master of Science in Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (MSODO)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Orthodontic Appliances -- statistics & numerical data; Tooth Movement Techniques; Analysis of Variance



Page Count

xi, 58 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives