Maxillary sinus osteotomy is sometimes indicated for transantral surgical approaches to palatal roots of maxillary molars. A search of the literature showed an absence of any report on the healing potential of such defects. The purpose of this study was to determine histologically the reparative process of the nasal sinus of dogs following small and large surgical antral perforations. After anesthetizing six beagle dogs, full thickness periosteal flaps were raised overlying the maxillary buccal cortical plates. A 5x5 mm diameter perforation was created with a trephine bur above the second maxillary premolar on one side of each animal. On the contralateral side a 12x6 mm opening was made. Both osteotomies extended through the frontal process of the maxilla and the nasal mucous membrane. The animals were then given IM injections of tetracycline as a bone marker immediately following surgery, and at time intervals of one month, two months, and one week prior to sacrificing. After five months the animals, along with an unoperated control dog, were sacrificed and their maxillae were removed and fixed in 10% formalin. The block sections containing the perforation sites were embedded in methyl-methacrylate, sectioned, and ground to 5-10 microns. The unstained sections were first viewed with incandescent and UV light microscopy to study the tetracycline induced florescent labels. The same sections were then stained with tri-chrome for histologic evaluation. Examination of the sections revealed one sample which had no healing only fibrous connective tissue repair in the defect. Nine of the samples had partial healing, but lacked full extension of bone across the perforation sites, with presence of central areas of fibrous scar tissue. Only two of the samples showed full extension of very thin bone repair (80-300 microns) across the defect. Based on our results it appears that sinus defects, regardless of their size, tend to repair with a bony antral covering and fibrous scar, and not to the same thickness or topography as the presurgical antral wall.




Graduate School

First Advisor

Mahmoud Torabinejad

Second Advisor

Philip J. Boyne

Third Advisor

Paul Engen

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Osteotomy -- methods; Maxillary Sinus -- surgery; Dogs; Endodontics -- methods



Page Count

vii; 78

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives