A sample of twelve Frankel appliance (FR-2) treated patients, in the mixed dentition stage, were selectively chosen by an orthodontist based on the Class II correction and evaluated from before treatment and end of treatment laminagraphic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The average treatment period was 22 months (1 yr. 10 mos.). The average pre-treatment age was 9.5 years with a range from 8 to 11 years old, while the average post-treatment age was 11.3 years with a range of 10 to 13 years.

Frankel appliance therapy was the only form of mechanics used in this study.

The before treatment lateral cephalometric and laminagraphic radiographs (T1 records) and computer growth forecasts were compared to the end of treatment radiographs (T2 records) to determine any orthopedic and orthodontic effects of treatment and to see if there was an augmentation of the condyle or mandibular repositioning. Factors from Ricketts' Cephalometric Analysis, along with some measurements from a modified temporomandibular joint analysis were statistically analyzed to determine the significance of treatment.

The data from this study indicated that Frankel appliance therapy will correct Class II malocclusion, but not by an increase in mandibular growth over that which would be expected without treatment. Rather the correction occurred via dento-alveolar changes and a repositioning or reposturing of the mandible as exhibited by the movement of the condyle down and away from the external auditory meatus within the glenoid fossa; however, the repositioning may only be temporary.

The data indicated that the structure of the mandible was not changed with respect to its expected growth as there was not any significant change in the mandibular arc and gonial angle. However, its position was changed significantly as indicated by the change in condyle location within the glenoid fossa, the lower facial height increasing, the ramus position coming forward, and the bite opening.

Therefore, it seems that the FR-2 appliance, as used in this study, is involved in creating an environment which allows for significant dental correction, but that any significant skeletal change should not be expected; rather a repositioning of the condyle in the fossa will occur, if only temporary.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

John K. Pearson

Second Advisor

Gary G. Morikone

Third Advisor

Logan W. Barnard

Fourth Advisor

Clelan G. Ehler

Fifth Advisor

Lawrence W. Will

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Orthodontic Appliances



Page Count

iv; 43

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives