Preventive resin restorations (PRR) are an increasingly popular alternative to the traditional amalgam restoration for small occlusal caries in posterior teeth. The technique for placing the PRR was first suggested by Simonsen (1980) and involved a minimal removal of tooth structure. After preparation, the tooth is etched, followed by an application of a bonding agent, filled with composite, and then sealed with a pit and fissure sealant. In an attempt to simplify the protocol of the PRR this study was designed to determine if pit and fissure sealant material could serve a dual role and eliminate the need for a separate bonding agent. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether pit and fissure sealant material could be used as a bonding agent in assimilated PRR's.


Sixty-six extracted, non-carious human permanent molars were randomly divided into six treatment groups, with eleven teeth in each group. The PRR technique for each group was the same except that, in the control group, a conventional bonding agent was placed against the dentin and enamel, and in the experimental group, a pit and fissure sealant was substituted for the bonding agent. Herculite® XRV™ (Kerr) was the composite used in all groups. In the three experimental groups one of the following sealants, Delton Plus (Ash Dentsply), Ultraseal® XT™ Plus (Ultradent) with PrimaDry™, and Ultraseal® XT™ Plus without PrimaDry™, was used as both the bonding agent and the sealant. These groups were compared with three control groups that used OptiBond® Solo Plus (Kerr) as the bonding agent and one of the above pit and fissure sealant materials as the sealant over the top of the composite.

The teeth were thermocycled for 2000 cycles in 5°C and 55°C water baths with a 30 second dwell time at eaeh temperature. The roots were sealed with nail polish and each specimen was exposed to 0.5% fuschin red dye for 24 hours at 37 °C. Each tooth was then sectioned five times in a buceal-lingual direction and parallel to the long axis of the tooth. The sections were visually examined with a 10X micrometer microscope and evaluated for microleakage. Subsequently, the teeth samples were scored according to the depth of dye penetration.


All the groups had high amounts of microleakage. The data, however, showed that in the groups that used sealant as the bonding agent, there was significantly more microleakage than in the groups that used the traditional bonding agent (p-value < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in microleakage between the occlusal sealed and unsealed sides of the PRR's (p-value = .3056).


  1. Substituting pit and fissure sealant material for a traditional bonding agent in assimilated PRR's resulted in significantly higher microleakage scores.
  2. There was no statistically significant difference in microleakage scores between the PRR's where the occlusal surfaces had or had not been sealed with a pit and fissure sealant.

LLU Discipline

Pediatric Dentistry


Pediatric Dentistry


Graduate School

First Advisor

John Peterson

Second Advisor

Jay Kim

Third Advisor

Carlos Munoz

Fourth Advisor

Daniel Tan

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Pit and Fissure Sealant; Dental Bonding; Dental Cements.



Page Count

ix; 27

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives