This exploratory retrospective study was designed to evaluate selected factors, including the ability to regain bladder function related to post indwelling urethral catheterization in an acute general hospital population.

The records of 107 patients who met the study criteria became the study population. These patients had three-way urethral catheters, continuous antibacterial irrigation and closed drainage system. Twenty patients died (19 percent) before the catheter was removed. Of the 87 patients who were alive, 37 percent (32 patients) had in-adequate bladder function. Of these 32 patients, no attempt was made to remove the catheter from 15 prior to their hospital discharge. The remaining 17 patients had severely impaired bladder function after catheter removal. The characteristics of these 32 patients were: catheterization 15 days or longer, disturbed state of consciousness, and the majority had neurologic problems.

To assist with analysis the patients were divided into three groups according to the reason for catheterization: 1) neurologic (14 percent), 2) genito-urinary or gynecologic surgery (28 percent), and 3) other (58 percent). This third group included the need to monitor urinary output, and the need to control incontinence in severely ill patients.

Bladder training was attempted with five patients by intermittent clamping of the urethral catheter. The two less severely ill patients may have been helped as their bladder function was satisfactory after removal of the catheter.

There was no statistically significant relationship between an impairment of bladder function and sex or reason for indwelling catheterization. The relationship between bladder function and age grouping showed that more patients in the older age group had either severe impairment of bladder function or the catheter was not removed prior to hospital discharge. The findings also support the idea of increased incidence of bacteriuria among patients with long term use of the catheter.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

R. Maureen Maxwell

Second Advisor

Harvey A. Elder

Third Advisor

T. Grace Emori

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Urinary Catheterization; Bladder



Page Count

vii; 37

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives