Grace H. Woo


Purpose: This study retrospectively examined the average sagittal dimensions in the pharyngeal airway from skeletal and dental Class I males and females from 7 to 16 years of age utilizing longitudinal data from the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection. The study evaluated whether average sagittal airway dimensions differed between males and females at each age, and whether the sagittal airway dimension changed with increasing age. Materials and Methods: Sagittal airway dimension based on identifiable anatomical landmarks were digitally traced and measured from the longitudinal lateral cephalograms of 30 females and 32 males from the AAOF Growth Legacy Collection from ages 7 to 16. The distance from the anterior to posterior 2-D limit of the airway along a line perpendicular to Frankfort Horizontal and passing through the anterior nasal spine (ANS) (Measurement 1A-1B), through A-point (Measurement 2A-2B), through upper incisor tip (Measurement 3A-3B), through B-point (Measurement 4A-4B), and throughPogonion (Pog) (Measurement 5A-5B) was measured. Results: ANCOVA showed that males had a statistically significant greater 3A-3B length than females at age 13 (P = 0.02), 15 (P = 0.01), and 16 (P = 0.04). In males, there was a statistically significant increase in 2A-2B length (P = 0.04) and 5A-5B length (P = 0.03) between ages 7 and 16. No other comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions: No statistically significant difference was found in sagittal airway dimension between males and females. No statistically significant difference was found in change in sagittal airway dimension with increasing age. We were unable to establish normative values.

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


School of Dentistry

First Advisor

Farrage, James

Second Advisor

Leggitt, V. Leroy

Third Advisor

Olson, Gregory W.

Fourth Advisor

Rynearson, R. David

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Cephalometry -- Methods; Maxillofacial Development; Facial Bones -- Growth & Development; Nasal Cartilages -- Growth & Development

Subject - Local

Sagittal Airways; Pharyngeal Airway; Craniofacial Growth;



Page Count


Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives