Wendella Wray


Poverty is the single greatest threat to a child’s well-being. Poverty has been shown to exacerbate child maltreatment (CM) and minimize nurturing parenting. CM is a leading cause of death among children under the age of five in the United States. Both poverty and CM are major public health concerns worldwide with important implications for the family. For over three decades great focus has been placed on developing evidence-based (EB) parenting and family interventions to promote the well-being of high-risk families. Using a conceptual framework guided by elements of the social cognitive theory, attachment theory and family systems theory, this pilot study examined if adding personalized tele-coaching to the delivery of the 16-week, evidence-based parenting program (EBPP) Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) plus case management (NPP+) would offer better results for high-risk, low SES parents. Parents attending the NPP+ in community sites were randomly selected to receive 30-60 minutes of tele-coaching. Key treatment variables (i.e., stress-management, parental self-efficacy, child attachment and self-regulation of emotions) were examined for increases in self-reported parenting competencies scores in the intervention versus the control groups. Pre and post test survey results suggest that while the overall NPP+ is highly effective, adding a telecoaching intervention to individually review key topics to support parenting and related variables seems to not significantly add to the NPP+’s effectiveness. Nevertheless, in our process evaluation most parents stated that they really appreciated the flexibilty and additonal support that the individualized tel-coaching sessions offered. Thus, tele-coaching was well received. Tele-coaching as a content solidifying intervention should be explored adding it alone to NPP vs. NPP with case management as this may benefit some high need parents if resources are limited and a decision has to be made to offer case management or tele-coaching.

LLU Discipline

Marital and Family Therapy


Counseling and Family Sciences


School of Behavioral Health

First Advisor

Montgomery, Susanne

Second Advisor

Oloo, Winetta A.

Third Advisor

Williams-Reade, Jacqueline M.

Fourth Advisor

Wilson, Colwick

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Poverty; Child Abuse; Family and Parenting; Stress Management;

Subject - Local

High-risk Families; Social Cognitive Theory; Tele-coaching; Self-efficacy; Nurturing Parenting Program



Page Count


Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives