Hyo Jin Lee


Problematic video game use (PVGU), or addiction-like use of video games, is associated with negative physical and mental health problems as well as problems in social and occupational functioning. Possible contributors to PVGU include frequency of play, cigarette smoking, and ADHD. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationships among PVGU, cigarette smoking, ADHD, and frequency of play simultaneously using a structural modeling approach. Secondary data analysis was conducted on 2,801 video game users (Mage = 22.43 years, SDage = 4.7; 93% male) who completed an online survey comprising measures of PVGU, ADHD symptomatology, smoking behavior, and hours of video game use. The full model fit the data well: χ2 (2) = 2.017, p > .05; RMSEA = 0.002 (90% CI [.000, .038]); CFI = 1.000; SRMR = .004. Absolute values of all standardized residuals were less than 0.1. All freely estimated paths were statistically significant. ADHD symptomatology, smoking behavior, and hours of video game use explained 41.8% of variance in PVGU. ADHD symptomatology, cigarette use, and video game use may all contribute to PVGU, which is consistent with past studies that examined these variables independently. Tracking these variables may be useful for PVGU prevention and assessment. The measurement model fit well, suggesting that Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, adapted for video game use, and Problem Videogame Playing Scale measure the same construct. Findings using either measures may be compared to each other, and both measures may be used as a screener of PVGU. The field of video game research may benefit from studying additional variables that help explain PVGU, specific treatment protocols for PVGU, and the effect of ADHD or smoking treatment on PVGU.

LLU Discipline

Clinical Psychology




School of Behavioral Health

First Advisor

Morrell, Holly E. R.

Second Advisor

Brenner, Colleen A.

Third Advisor

Herbozo, Sylvia M.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Video Games; Smoking; Tobacco Use; Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;

Subject - Local

Problematic Video Game Use; Structural Modeling; Addiction



Page Count


Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives