Pakistan has the highest prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) among Asian countries. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional study was to determine the predictors of PPD among women in Karachi, Pakistan. The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping was used as a framework. A purposive convenience sample of 234 postpartum women was taken from out-patient departments of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A survey in English and Urdu containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), DUREL Religion Index Subscale three, Cohen’s 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Abuse Assessment Screen, Traditional postpartum cultural beliefs, and other demographic variables associated with PPD in the literature was completed by self-report or structured interview. Postpartum women < 16-years-old or having mental disorders other than PPD were excluded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 24. The sample consisted of 95.7% Muslims, 98.7% married, 52.2% had education of intermediate or below, with a mean age of 27.78 ± 4.43 years, ranging from 19-42 years, and 163 screened positive for PPD using the EPDS. Independent sample t-test, and Pearson’s chi square were significantly different among women with PPD compared to women without PPD on habits detrimental to health (p = .005), MSPSS friends’ subscale (p = .03), MSPSS total (p = .01), abuse (p = .003), special person (p = .031), PSS (p = .00), and a belief ‘consumption of hot foods’ (p = .004). Multiple linear regression revealed, MSPSS total (p = .05), abuse (p = .03), and PSS (p = .00) as significant predictors of PPD, and explained 31% of the variance. Scale reliability was acceptable to excellent, with one Cronbach’s alpha of .65 and the rest ranging from .73 to .92. This study contributes to nursing science by describing predictors of PPD in Pakistan, aiding identification of women at risk for PPD and early detection. Future research is necessary for the development and integration of a holistic approach that includes screening and treatment of PPD in postpartum care to improve maternal mental health and wellbeing.
School of Nursing
Roberts, Lisa R.
Lee, Jerry W.
Petersen, Anne Berit
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Depression; Postpartum; Postpartum Period; Pakistan;
Subject - Local
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping; Postpartum Depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; DUREL Religion Index Subscale; Perceived Stress Scale; Multidimensional Scale of perceived Social Support
Loma Linda University Libraries
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John, Vimla Gill, "Predictors of Postpartum Depression among Women in Karachi, Pakistan" (2017). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 476.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives