Introduction: An index must be used to quantify the improvement in the position of teeth treated by orthodontics. The Cast-Radiograph Evaluation is the index used by the American Board of Orthodontics. The purpose of this study is to use this index to evaluate treatment outcomes in the graduate orthodontic clinic at Loma Linda University from 2012-2016. Materials and Methods: Patients included were comprehensively treated, debonded between 1/1/2012 and 12/31/2016, and under age 30. A total of 80 patients were randomly selected, with 16 coming from each year. The ABO DI was used to score the T1 models, and the CR-Eval was used to score the T2 models. For scoring reliability, a set of 5 calibration models were scored with the P.I., who has had experience as an examiner for the ABO. Results: It was found that DI scores ranged from 2 to 48, with the mean being 14.55±8.41. CR-Eval scores ranged from 15 to 47, with the mean being 30.09±7.596. There were no significant differences in mean CR-Eval scores for malloclusion types, between years included in the study, between cases treated with extractions verses those treated without, and between cases that started with a cross bite or impacted canine and

those that didn’t. In this sample, Alignment/Rotations was the highest scored category of the CR-Eval (6.65±2.66), followed by Buccolingual Inclination (4.987±3.10), and Occlusal Contacts (4.875±2.71). Interproximal Contacts scored the least (0.30±0.75). Conclusions: According to the results found in this data set, there was no statistically significant change in the mean CR-Eval scores from year to year. There was also no statistically significant correlation between DI at T1 and CR-Eval at T2. Alignment and Rotations are the category that have the most room for improvement. Buccolingual Inclination was the second highest, followed by the Occlusal Contacts category. Discussion: This study confirms the value and need for progress models prior to debond with sufficient time to perform a CR-Eval and make the necessary adjustments.

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


School of Dentistry

First Advisor

Rynearson, R. David

Second Advisor

Caruso, Joseph M.

Third Advisor

Farrage, James

Degree Name

Master of Science in Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (MSODO)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Orthodontics; Dental Models;

Subject - Local

Cast-Radiograph Evaluation; Treatment Outcomes



Page Count


Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives