Laboratory studies of trackways of the crayfish, Cambarus clarkii were conducted, and the footprints compared with fossil invertebrate footprints (Paleohelcura sp.) of the Permian Coconino sandstone of Northern Arizona, and similar footprints of other sandstone. Fine grained sand (similar to that composing the Coconino sandstone) was placed in a plexiglass tank to form slopes of various angles. The crayfish walked up and down slopes of 10°± 3°, 20°± 2°, 25° and on level sand, and their trackways were photographed. Trackways were produced on wet sand and underwater sand, but the animals would not walk on dry sand. Clear individual impressions (footprints) were present in one hundred percent of the wet sand trackways and ninety percent of the underwater trackways. A variety of track patterns was produced with twenty percent of the underwater trackways resembling the fossil track patterns of Paleohelcura sp. Forty-five percent of all the underwater trackways and eighty-eight percent of those made on low dipping slopes we re also very similar to Paleohelcura sp. in characteristic features of the individual impressions. These data indicate that trackways such as those named Paleohe lcura could have been made in an underwater environment by some aquatic animal, such as a crustacean.
Leonard R. Brand
Arthur E. Dalgleish
Conrad D. Clausen
Master of Arts (MA)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Footprints, Fossil; Invertebrates -- Research
Loma Linda University Libraries
This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Emtage, Marilyn A., "Modern Invertebrate Footprints Compared with Fossil Footprints from the Coconino Sandstone (Permian)" (1977). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 590.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives