The extent and severity of cardiovascular disease can be measured by an angiogram. This procedure measures the degree of occlusion in major arteries of the heart. This physical measurement was correlated with patient's tendency to be forgiving of themselves and others. This measurement reflects forgiveness as a trait-like characteristic. Patients at Loma Linda University Medical Center who were undergoing angiography were given the BDHI (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory), the FOS and FOO (Forgiveness of Self and Forgiveness of Others) scales to complete during their waiting room period. No significant correlations were found between the scales used in this study and angiogram outcomes. Suggestions for future research are given and possible reasons for the failure to find correlations are also discussed.
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Forgiveness; Heart -- Abnormalities -- Psychological aspects; Heart -- Diseases -- Psychosomatic aspects; Heart Diseases -- prevention & control; Heart Diseases -- psychology.
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This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Bogle, Mary K. J., "Forgiveness and Failure of the Heart" (2004). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 661.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives