Yen Ang


Much has been discussed about the health benefits and risks of soy consumption but very little is known about who the consumers are. Most of what is known has been observed mainly in Asian populations who consume high levels of soy. Very little is known about soy food intake in the western population who typically has low consumption level. The Seventh-Day Adventist cohort in North America is the only population known in the West with soy food intake that is comparable to the Asian population living in the East.

Soy consumers in a population known for its healthier lifestyle and high soy intake may serve as a reference group in future analytical study conducted in the West in which hypotheses on the association between intake of soy food and diseases might be tested. Knowledge of patterns and determinants of soy consumption, some of which may be potential lifestyle-related confounders may help us better understand and analyze the relationship of soy consumption with disease incidence at a later point. The aim of this dissertation was to identify the determinants of soy consumption by describing the sociademographic, religious, migration, dietary and other lifestyle-related factors of soy food consumption in the respondents of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2).

Three soy food types—soymilk, meat analogue, traditional soy were identified. Total soy which is the sum of the three soy foods was also analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression identified several significant predictors of soy consumption. The degree of meat avoidance (vegetarian status) showed a strong relationship with all types of soy food consumption (OR from 1.8 to 9.9, p < 0.05). Ethnicity, i.e., being Asian is a strong predictor (OR:8.3, p < 0.05) for tofu and soy bean consumption. Soy consumption is associated being educated, health conscious (avoidance of meat, and more physically active), thinner and younger (for traditional soy consumers). The consumer typology could serve as reference for future studies on soy food consumption in a western population.


School of Public Health

First Advisor

Susanne Montgomery

Second Advisor

Jerry W. Lee

Third Advisor

Joan Sabate

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Soyfoods -- Health aspects; Health -- Religious aspects -- Seventh-day Adventists; Asian Americans -- Health and hygiene.



Page Count

xii; 129

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives