The purpose of this study was to find out if the procedure developed by the investigator for obtaining midstream urine specimens for culture from adult female outpatients would produce less contamination than the procedure most often used in the selected outpatient department. Following a review of pertinent literature, two relatively equivalent groups of twenty-two adult females with medical or surgical problems were selected. Persons with symptoms of urinary tract infection were excluded from the study. One group was subjected to the control procedure, designated as Procedure A. Procedure A was an unsupervised procedure involving the use of soap and water as cleansing agents, with instruction of the patient by a non-nurse receptionist. The other group was subjected to the experimental procedure, designated as Procedure B. Procedure B involved the use of Phisohex and sterile water as cleansing agents and instruction and supervision of the patient by the nurse-investigator. A single midstream urine specimen was obtained from each subject and submitted to quantitative culture and microscopic examination for pus cells The laboratory findings indicated that, as compared with Procedure A, Procedure B produced specimens which (l) were negative forty-five per cent more often, (2) contained less than 10,000 bacterial contaminants per milliliter of urine nine per cent more often, (3) contained 10,000 to 100,000 bacterial contaminants per milliliter of urine forty-one per cent less often, (4) had a maximum contamination of 25,000, as compared with over 100,000 bacteria per milliliter of urine and (5) contained five fewer bacterial species. A limited relationship between the health programs and the subjects and the bacterial counts of their urine was observed as follows: (l) The two specimens obtained by Procedure A which showed possible asymptomatic bacteriuria in association with pyuria were both from patients with hypertension, and (2) Hypothyroidism or arthritis of the hands, respectively, may have contributed to contamination of the two specimens obtained by Procedure B which had over 1,000 bacteria per milliliter of urine. Problems most frequently encountered with Procedure B, and which may have influenced the degree of contamination of the specimens, were (l) difficulty in following instructions, (2) difficulty in voiding and (3) psychological stress, that the hypothesis for the study had been supported — that the procedure It was concluded developed by the investigator did produce less contamination of the urine than the procedure most often used in the selected outpatient department for obtaining midstream urine specimens for culture from adult females. The chief recommendation was that Procedure B, or an appropriate modification thereof, be adopted for use in the selected outpatient department. in preference to Procedure A.
Matila Ababelle Mills
Gertrude L. Haussler
Master of Science (MS)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Urine -- analysis
Loma Linda University Libraries
This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Page, S. Maxine, "A Comparative Study of Two Methods of Obtaining Midstream Urine Specimens" (1965). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 680.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives