[Abstract Not Included]

Introduction The importance of selecting only foods containing proteins of high nutritive value has been somewhat over-emphasized in the past because of the failure to recognize the possibility of supplementary relationships among proteins that are not of high quality. Hart (11) has wisely suggested that a food should not be relegated to an inferior class because its proteins, when fed alone, are not of high biological value. Sherman (31) has reminded us that with a knowledge of the nutritional chemistry of the proteins of various foods, it becomes relatively easy to utilize their supplementary relationships so that even an inexpensive mixed diet shall be safe from such shortages of individual amino acids as have been illustrated in feeding experiments with isolated proteins. Also, it becomes important to reform the traditional habit of speaking of "animal protein" as if it alone were efficient in this connection, for we now know that several of the plant proteins are similarly "effective." Thus animal proteins may not be essential for normal nutrition for Wright (37) has stated that in any mixed diet, even if wholly of plant origin, the proteins are sure to be sufficiently varied to compensate for any individual inadequacies in amino-acid content, if only the total amount of protein is sufficient.

Supplemental relationships among proteins are not new, for Osborne and Mendel (26) first demonstrated the remarkable supplemental effect of adding small quantities of more efficient proteins to zein. McCollum et al. (19) has pioneered in the study of supplementary materials for cereal grains, seed proteins and other foods. Mitchell (25) has discussed the supplementary relationships between the proteins of corn and milk, corn and gelatin, and other proteins; and Sure (33) has investigated the relationships occurring between cereal grains. Mixtures of legumes and wheat, as they occur in diets of the near East, have been studied by Adolph (1).

According to Sure (34), it is impossible to raise enough cattle for human consumption in over-populated, under-privileged countries. The knowledge that vegetable calories are inefficiently converted into animal tissues, for human consumption, is well known (35). Thus, by utilizing the supplementary relationships among proteins, the more readily available cereal grains and legumes could be used advantageously to replace some of the proteins from animal sources.

Keys (17) states that in actual practice the importance of protein quality is much less than previously supposed. In ordinary diets, even of the vegetarian type, the protein moiety is made up of many different proteins and the chance that all of them will be low in one or more amino acids is small.

Osborne and Mendel (28) have demonstrated that whole wheat proteins, considered in their entirety, are adequate for promoting normal growth if eaten in sufficient amounts. However, in the production of white flour, the high quality bran and embryo proteins are removed, thus reducing the nutritive value of the flour. The work of Fence (29) has shown that 85% of the total protein in wheat flour can be accounted for in a crude gluten preparation and that approximately one half of the total albumin and nearly all of the globulin in flour is retained by crude gluten.

The following investigations are concerned with the supplemental effect of various food proteins on the crude gluten fraction of wheat flour.

LLU Discipline





Graduate School

First Advisor

U. D. Register

Second Advisor

Mervyn G. Hardinge

Third Advisor

Thomas F. Judefind

Fourth Advisor

Raymond A. Mortensen

Fifth Advisor

Carrol S. Small

Sixth Advisor

Charles M. Gruber

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Wheat; Proteins



Page Count

vi; 57

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives