The Arroyo Toad (Bufo cakfomicus) is an endangered species found in rivers of southern California, USA and northern Baja California, Mexico. It has experienced population declines throughout its range, as a result of urbanization, hydrologic alterations, and overall habitat loss. As part of the Recovery Plan for this species, it was determined that more research was needed to assist in management decisions. One of those research needs was to better understand the intraspecific genetic variation within the Arroyo Toad. I conducted a range wide genetic study of the Arroyo Toad to uncover lineages and genetic variation among and between all major watersheds. This information is essential to our understanding of the species by providing data to determine recovery units independent of geographic location, delimit metapopulations, identify closely related populations for the potential augmentation of declining or extinct populations, assess dispersal between watersheds, and quantify genetic diversity throughout its distribution. In the course of this project, I also identified a more precise range of the species in Baja California, Mexico, along with the issues and challenges facing its conservation in the poorly known southern portion of its range.
School of Science and Technology
L. Lee Grismer
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Year Degree Awarded
Date (Title Page)
Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings
Arroyo toad -- California, Southern; Arroyo toad -- Mexico -- Baja California (Peninsula); Phylogeography; Bufo -- Phylogeny; Bufo bufo; Phylogeny; Species Specificity; Genetic Speciation; Endangered Species.
Loma Linda University Libraries
This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.
Lovich, Robert Edward, "Phylogeography and Conservation of the Arroyo Toad (Bufo californicus)" (2009). Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects. 724.
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives