Lan Nguyen


Objective: To investigate the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fat from plant versus marine sources on biochemical markers of bone turnover.

Design: Both studies were controlled, single blind, randomized trials using Latin-square crossover designs.

Subjects/Methods:Twenty-five (12 females and 13 males) and 24 (9 females and 15 males) healthy participants completed the Fish-Walnut Study and the Omega-3 Study, respectively. The Fish-Walnut Study included three diets: [1] control, [2] ALA-rich diet (1.5 oz of walnuts/day, 6 times/week), and [3] EPA/DHA-rich diet (8 oz of salmon/week). The Omega-3 Study included four diets: [1] control, [2] ALA-rich diet (42-49 g flaxseed oil/wk; lOg walnuts, 3 times/week), [3] EPA/DHA-rich diet (1.40/5.04 g EPA/DHA from microalgae oil/wk), and [4] combination diet (including both ALA and EPA/DHA diets). After a 1-week run-in phase, participants were randomly assigned to a diet for 4 weeks each for the Fish-Walnut Study and 8 weeks each for the Omega-3 Study. Biochemical markers of bone turnover [c-telopeptide (CTX); procollagen Type I N-terminal propeptide (PINT); and osteocalcin (OC)] were analyzed in serum at the end of each diet period in both studies.

Results:There were no significant changes in serum CTX, P1NP, and OC among the three diets (p > 0.05) in both studies. In the Fish-Walnut Study, there was a significant negative association between P1NP levels and age (p = 0.005). In the Omega-3 Study, there was a significant negative association between age and CTX (p

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that both an ALA-rich diet and an EPA/DHA-rich diet did not alter biochemical markers of bone resorption (CTX) and formation (P1NP and OC) in healthy adults in this study design.




School of Public Health

First Advisor

Sujatha Rajaram

Second Advisor

Subburaman Mohan

Third Advisor

Joan Sabate

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Diet therapy -- Nutrition; Fatty acids -- Health aspects; Bones -- Metabolism; Nutritional Assessment; Dietary Fats -- metabolism; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated -- therapeutic use; Fatty Acids, Omega 3 -- therapeutic use; Fish Oils -- therapeutic use; Nuts -- therapeutic use; Plants, Edible -- therapeutic use; Bone and Bones -- metabolism; Health -- Adult; Biological Markers; Cross-Sectional Studies.



Page Count

ix; 114

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives