Background: Whole foods are readily available antioxidant source and provide beneficial macromolecules and phytochemicals, which may contribute to optimal health. However, the approach to examining whole foods rich in antioxidants to play either an equivalent or better role in defending exercise-induced oxidant stress have not yet been taken. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 2 isocaloric preexercise beverages: an almond-raisin beverage and a commercial sports beverage in male endurance runners on selected antioxidant status markers.

Design: In a randomized crossover study, 10 male runners (ages 28+1.2 years) ran to exhaustion on a treadmill at 70% V02max, twice, separated by 2 weeks. Blood samples were drawn 60 minutes pre-exercise, at the start, and every 20 minutes thereafter. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) represented antioxidant activity. Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) represented total serum polyphenols. Using high-pressure-liquidchromatography, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TEARS) reflected serum malondialdehyde levels. Statistical analyses were conducted using mixed linear models that included time and treatment as fixed factors, and subject as a random factor.

Results: In the longitudinal analysis, there was a significant main treatment effect found when all time points were included for TEAC and GAE, with the almond-raisin beverage having a significantly greater level than the commercial sports beverage (p = 0.0002, p 0.0239, respectively); the TEARS showed no significant treatment effect (p = 0.08278).

Conclusion: The almond-raisin beverage appears to provide a measure of antioxidant protection beyond that of the sports beverage and may be considered as an alternative to the commonly used beverages for endurance runners.




Graduate School

First Advisor

Sujatha Rajaram

Second Advisor

Ella Haddad

Third Advisor

Joan Sabaté

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Beverages; Nutrition; Sports; Physical Endurance; Antioxidants.



Page Count

ix; 60

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


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Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives