Gangaw Zaw


The attribution of intentionality has received significant attention in the social cognition literature (Malle, 1999). Perceiving the intentions of others has several implications for how individuals judge and respond to others' behaviors in various social situations. The current study examined factors that predict attributions of intentionality. Studies by Jones and Davis (1965) have indicated the role of culture is involved in perceptions of intentionality. In addition, studies in philosophy have implicated the self as influential in the perception of intentionality. The self is also a product of culture and cultural value orientations (e.g. individualism and collectivism). Markus and Kitayama (1991) identified two construals of the self (e.g. independent and interdependent) that are influenced by culture. The current study examined how cultural value orientations of individualism and collectivism and related beliefs about the self may influence the attribution of intentionality. A Structural Equation model was proposed to explain the hypothesized relations among the variables in a conflict situation. Specifically, it was expected the cultural value orientations would be directly related to the perception intentionality, and indirectly through the construal of the self. The model testing the hypothesized and theoretically based relations among the variables was confirmed, x2(24, 224)=74.13, p=.00, CFI = .95, RMSEA= .10. The initial results indicated collectivism and individualism influenced the interdependent and independent construal of the self, respectively; however, these variables did not predict the attribution of intentionality. Additional models tested showed that a model incorporating locus of control and controllability improved the fit of the original model, x2 (69, 224)=125.03, p=.00, (CFI)=.95, RMSEA=.06. These results demonstrated that cultural value orientation and the construal of the self indirectly influenced the perception of intentionality through the locus and controllability.

LLU Discipline





School of Science and Technology

First Advisor

Hector Betancount

Second Advisor

David Chavez

Third Advisor

Gloria Cowan

Fourth Advisor

Ivanna Guthrie

Fifth Advisor

David Satre

Sixth Advisor

Janet Sonne

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Intentionality (Philosophy); Cognition -- Social aspects; Psychology -- Philosophy; Ethnopsychology; Psychoanalysis and culture; Culture.



Page Count

ix; 99

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives