Nilsa Valles


The objectives of this research study were to: (1) determine the total labor time by work function in the production of eight vegetarian entrees, (2) ascertain total labor cost in the production of the selected entrees to determine total cost of entree, and (3) compare labor time data from four of the entrees selected with data from a research project conducted earlier.

Continuous time study techniques were used to collect labor time data in the production of the eight vegetarian entrees. Data collected were processed and tabulated on an Apple II computer system. Actual time expended in each work function classification was analyzed to determine total labor time by work function, percentage distribution of total labor time, and total labor cost for each entree studied.

Results for total labor time indicated a range from 81.30 to 11.53 seconds per serving. The percentage distribution of total labor time by work functions indicated that direct labor was the category on which the greatest percentage of labor time was spent with a range of 97.75 to 89.69 percent. Indirect labor was recorded as less than 3 percent of total labor time for all eight entrees. Delay time ranged from 9.45 to 0.46 percent of total labor time.

Findings for total food and labor cost per serving for each of the eight entrees studied indicated the highest cost to be $0.634 per serving, and the lowest cost $0.180 per serving

An analysis of variance of labor time indicated there was a significant difference between the eight entrees in direct labor time, delay time, and total labor time. An analysis of variance of cost of labor also indicated there was a significant difference between the eight entrees in labor cost.

Comparison of cooks' labor time data with data from a similar study conducted in 1970, indicated there was a decrease in total cooks' labor time from the first study to the present one for the four entrees compared. Data on percentage of distribution of labor time indicated there was a percentage increase in total direct time from the earlier study to the second, while indirect labor time decreased.

It was concluded that the continuous time study technique used in this research provided a feasible and reliable means of collecting labor time data by work function in the production of vegetarian entrees in the food service system studied. Recommendation was made that additional labor time studies be conducted in this food service system to determine how labor time is being utilized and to establish production time standards. It was suggested that studies include not only remaining menu entrees not yet studied, but production of all menu items as well.


Graduate School

First Advisor

Kathleen K. Zolber

Second Advisor

Kenneth I. Burke

Third Advisor

Bertrum C. Connell

Fourth Advisor

Gerald M. Shavlik

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Task Performance and Analysis; Vegetarianism; Cooking.



Page Count

iii; 85

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website


Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives