Background: Consuming beans and staggering meals may control energy intake. We examined the effect of consuming 0.5 cup of beans 15 minutes before a meal on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides concentrations in obese men and women.

Methods: A randomized crossover design was used to measure GI peptides response to two test meals in 28 healthy obese adults. Subjects consumed a standardized breakfast meal on each test day followed by one of two test meals: a meal incorporating 0.5 cup of beans (control bean meal), and an isocaloric meal (staggered bean meal) in which 0.5 cup of beans was consumed 15 minutes before the meal. Blood samples were obtained prior and at 30, 60, and 120 minutes following the consumption of the test meals and analyzed for unacylated ghrelin, acylated ghrelin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide and oxyntomodulin by ELISA. Visual analog scale for feelings of hunger and feelings of fullness were recorded at each blood draw. Dietary recalls were completed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The area under the curve (AUC) was compared using t-tests.

Results: The AUC30-120 for postprandial hormone GLP-1 was higher for the control bean meal compared to the control meal (P=0.03). AUC30-120 for the other postprandial hormones, insulin, glucose and subjective responses showed no statistical difference between the control bean meal and staggered bean meal. Subsequent meal intake was lower after staggered bean meal, however, the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Incorporating beans and staggering meals may be useful in conjunction with behavioral modification techniques to help with weight control and reduce energy intake.




School of Public Health

First Advisor

Ella Haddad

Second Advisor

Joan Sabaté

Third Advisor

Serena Tonstad

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Obesity -- Prevention; Gastrointestinal hormones; Appetite -- Physiological aspects; Beans -- Nutrition; Diet -- Health aspects; Vegetarianism; Obesity -- prevention and control; Gastrointestinal Hormones; Legumes; Appetite Regulation -- physiology; Diet, Vegetarian; Nutrition Assessment.



Page Count

x; 112

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives