Data on actual labor time can be utilized as an effective management tool. With labor cost representing about 50 percent of direct cost in food service, it is essential to examine how labor time is being utilized.

A continuous time study was conducted to determine the total labor time for the production of eight vegetarian entrees. The two work areas observed were the ingredient assembly area and the cooks' production area. This labor time was recorded by Work Functions to find the dis- tribution of labor time. Data from the observations were compiled using an Apple II computer system. Reports were generated to show: a) observed frequency of each Work Function, b) time expended in seconds for each Work Function, c) percentage distribution of labor time expended per Work Function, d) total time for each employee involved in the entree production, and e) percentage of total time for each employee involved in the entree production. The total labor time ranged from 39.97 to 19.33 seconds per serving. Entrees with the highest labor time required a large amount of hand labor. The largest percentage of labor time was spent in the category of direct time with a range of 96.75 to 94.47 percent. Indirect labor time was less than 5 percent of total labor time and delay time was less than 5 percent of the total labor time.

A second objective was to compare the cooks' labor time with data from Research Project I which was collected in 1970 using a similar methodology. Since the completion of Research Project I, an ingredient assembly area, and computer generated standardized production formulas are being utilized in the food service system. The comparison between data from Research Project I and II was made to determine delegation of routine tasks from cooks' area to ingredient room personnel. These comparisons indicated reduction in cooks' labor time. The percentage distribution of labor time increased in direct labor time while indirect labor time decreased.

A one-way analysis of variance indicated there was a significant difference in mean labor time between the eight vegetarian entrees for direct labor time, and total labor time.


Graduate School

First Advisor

Kathleen K. Zolber

Second Advisor

Kenneth I. Burke

Third Advisor

Bertrum C. Connell

Fourth Advisor

Gerald Shavlik

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Food Handling -- economics; Cooking; Task Performance and Analysis



Page Count

iii; 68

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives