Introduction: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be used to accurately identify dental landmarks in order to detect changes in dental arch forms. Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine how apical, coronal and occlusal arch forms change following orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to establish a base for future studies. Material and Methods: Maxillary and mandibular apical, coronal and occlusal landmarks of 27 subjects were selected on their respective CBCT images at two time points: pre-orthodontic treatment (T1) and post-orthodontic treatment (T2). Comparisons were made between the two time points to evaluate how each arch form changed following routine orthodontic treatment. Statistical Analysis: Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) with bootstrap analysis was used to assess changes in geometric form from T1 to T2 at each of the three levels. Landmark selection was repeated on 10 subjects and an intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess reproducibility. Results: The mandibular apical arch showed statistically significant change in geometric form from T1 to T2. No statistically significant change was observed in the mandibular coronal and occlusal, as well as maxillary apical, coronal and occlusal arches. Conclusion: During conventional orthodontic treatment of Class I, minimally crowded cases, selecting orthodontic arch wires according to the clinical coronal or occlusal arch form is viable.

LLU Discipline

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


School of Dentistry

First Advisor

Caruso, Joseph

Second Advisor

Batesole, Mark

Third Advisor

Leggitt, V. Leroy

Fourth Advisor

Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded

January 2012

Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Orthodontics;

Subject - Local

Orthodontics; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Apical Form Differences; Coronal Form Differences; Occlusal Form Differences; Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis



Page Count

51 p.

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives