Activation of GPR40 attenuates neuroinflammation and improves neurological function via PAK4/CREB/KDM6B pathway in an experimental GMH rat model

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Journal of Neuroinflammation




Background: Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is defined by the rupture of immature blood vessels in the germinal matrix, where subsequent hemorrhage enters the subependymal zone and the cerebral lateral ventricles. The consequent blood clot has been identified as the causative factor of secondary brain injury, which triggers a series of complex parallel and sequential harmful mechanisms, including neuroinflammation. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a free fatty acid (FFA) receptor 1, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects when activated and improved outcomes in animal models of stroke. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of GPR40 and its underlying mechanisms after GMH. Methods: GMH model was induced in 7-day-old rat pups by an intraparenchymal injection of bacterial collagenase. GPR40 agonist, GW9508, was administered intranasally 1 h, 25 h, and 49 h after GMH induction. CRISPR targeting GPR40, PAK4, and KDM6B were administered through intracerebroventricular injection 48 h before GMH induction. Neurologic scores, microglia polarization, and brain morphology were evaluated by negative geotaxis, right reflex, rotarod test, foot fault test, Morris water maze, immunofluorescence staining, Western blots, and nissl staining respectfully. Results: The results demonstrated that GW9508 improved neurological and morphological outcomes after GMH in the short (24 h, 48 h, 72h) and long-term (days 21–27). However, the neuroprotective effects of treatment were abolished by GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. GW9508 treatment increased populations of M2 microglia and decreased M1 microglia in periventricular areas 24 h after GMH induction. GW9508 upregulated the phosphorylation of PAK4, CREB, and protein level of KDM6B, CD206, IL-10, which was also met with the downregulation of inflammatory markers IL-1β and TNF-α. The mechanism study demonstrated that the knockdown of GPR40, PAK4, and KDM6B reversed the neuroprotective effects brought on by GW9508. This evidence suggests that GPR40/PAK4/CREB/KDM6B signaling pathway in microglia plays a role in the attenuation of neuroinflammation after GMH. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the activation of GPR40 attenuated GMH-induced neuroinflammation through the activation of the PAK4/CREB/KDM6B signaling pathway, and M2 microglia may be a major mediator of this effect. Thus, GPR40 may serve as a potential target in the reduction of the inflammatory response following GMH, thereby improving neurological outcomes in the short- and long-term.







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