A study was undertaken to survey by questionnaire and interview methods the breakfast and snack habits of Adventist and non-Adventist adolescents. The purposes of the study were: (I) to find out if there is any difference in the practices of Adventist and non-Adventist teenagers, and (2) to determine their attitudes toward snacking and omission of breakfast.

Results of the questionnaire were coded, punched onto IBM cards, and fed into computing machines for item and statistical analysis. Chi-square test analyses were done on denominational classification against some questions of interest to show any significant differences between Adventist and non-Adventist students' responses. For statistical validity, the socio-economic status was also considered in the analysis.

Statistical analysis showed that Adventist and non-Adventist teenagers snack regardless of differences in socio-economic status. Significant differences on the frequency of snacking were found between the two groups of adolescents. Non-Adventist students reported eating between meals everyday or most of the time, whereas, the Adventists who did eat between meals claimed doing so sometimes or one to three times a week. Fruit and vegetables were common snack items among Adventists while desserts were popular with the non-Adventists. Other common snack items for both groups of students were: milk, malts, shakes, cocoa, chips, nuts and crackers.

Hunger and desire to eat were foremost reasons for eating between meals. Some teenagers regarded eating between meals as an escape from boredom, nervousness, worry or anxiety. A greater proportion of the non-Adventist teenagers regarded eating between meals as all right; whereas, majority of the Adventist adolescents considered it as not necessary, not good for digestion and against their health principles.

The breakfast habits of both groups of subjects were shown by chi-square test to be influenced by socio-economic status. Statistically significant differences were noted between Adventist and non-Adventist girls on regularity of breakfast habits, adequacy of breakfasts, and attitudes toward omission of breakfast. Students from both groups would miss breakfast either because they were in a hurry or they were not hungry. Another reason for skipping breakfast was that it was not ready. To reduce weight was a motive cited by very few of the subjects.

It was concluded that the health teachings the Adventist adolescents have had in school, home and church may have influenced their infrequent snack habits and their attitudes toward eating between meals and omission of breakfast. The breakfast practices of both groups of adolescents were associated with the differences in socio-economic status.




Graduate School

First Advisor

Irma B. Vyhmeister

Second Advisor

Paul Y. Yahiku

Third Advisor

Betty R. Stirling

Fourth Advisor

Ralph R. Steinman

Fifth Advisor

Shirley Moore

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Nutrition Surveys; Adolescent Behavior



Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

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This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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