A total of 223 cephalometric radiographs selected from six contemporary western United States and Alaskans native groups were analyzed by use of the Bjork cephalometric analysis. Those native groups selected were the Eskimos, Apaches, Navajos, Papagos, Pimas and Mayos. Approximately thirty to forty natives from each group were used in the study with ages ranging from thirteen to thirty-five years. The majority were in the fifteen to twenty year age range.

All data was submitted to various statistical analyses to establish a mean, standard deviation, and other relevant values for each of the native groups and to compare these values with each other in an attempt to establish possible relationships. The most valuable of these tests were the t-test, the stepwise discriminate analysis and the scattergram.

It was found that the Eskimos differed from the other native groups in many of the measurements used and that these differences were often of a high degree of significance. It was found that the Apaches and the Navajos resembled each other in most of these same measurements. Also, it was found that the Papagos, Pimas and Mayos often resembled each other statistically.

The stepwise discriminate analysis was 86.5% accurate in classifying these natives in a proper classification. It was also found that the analysis was 93.5% accurate in classifying them as to sex. Such accuracy was much greater than that found using t-test.

Investigator error was examined by statistically comparing the mean values found by Bunker with those found by the author on the same radiographs of the Mayo group. Investigator error appeared to be minimal.

Sample differences were studied by a similar statistical comparison using two Navajo native groups. It was found that these two Navajo groups differed from each other at a greater significance level than that obtained by the author on most of the comparisons between any two of the six native groups used in the study. Such results indicate the possibility of significant differences when sampling procedures differ. Local environment, health, age and sampling techniques may be prime factors in these differences.

LLU Discipline



Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics


Graduate School

First Advisor

Alden B. Chase

Second Advisor

Charles T. Smith

Third Advisor

Howard W. Conley

Fourth Advisor

Walter H. B. Roberts

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Anatomy, Comparative; Bone and Bones -- anatomy & histology; Dentition – analysis; Cephalometry; Bone -- Measurement -- Study – Alaska; Dentition -- Study -- West (U.S.); Dentition -- Study – Alaska; Bone -- Measurement -- Study -- West (U.S.); Eskimos – Alaska; Alaska Natives; West (U.S.)



Page Count

x; 67

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives